COMPRESSION & RAREFACTION


Volume

Height of waveform - amplitude - Decibles (dB)

Pitch

Cycles per seconds (cps) - frequency - Hertz (Hz)

Timbre

Quality - wave shape - harmonics/overtones
Fundamental = 2nd harmonic
Fundamental = 100 Hz

octave
fifth
octave
third

Wave shapes:
•Square - odd harmonics
•Triangle - odd harmonics tapers off
•Sawtooth - all harmonics
•Sine
•Complex - voice
•Noise - all frequencies

Doppler Effect

Sonic Boom

Speed of Sound - 1130 ft per second at about 70ºF

3 Major Components of Sound

Pitch
Volume
Timbre

Sound has to vibrate

Longitudinal Wave - sounds is made up of these waves
Compression - squishing together molecules
Rarefaction - pulling molecules apart
Wavelength - from compression to rarefaction, represented by symbol lambda

Pitch
Measured by frequency
Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz)
Cycles per second in measured by frequency
Lower amount of cycles per second, lower the pitch. Opposite for higher
Double the frequency, you increase the octave
Can only hear so high or low. 20-20,000 Hz

Volume
Decibles (db) are measure of loudless
Amplitude is measured in decibles
0 decibles in the lowest we can hear, 120 is painful
Every sound has other pitches in it
Fundamental frequency times 2 is a octave higher
Sine wave has no other harmonics
x3=5th x4=next octave
Square wave consists of only odd harmonics
Triangle wave has only odd harmonics but drops off over time
Sawtooth wave has every harmonic but drops off over time
White noise is all of the harmonics playing at one time
Pink noise tapers off the higher harmonics
Complex wave is most natural sounds





WAVE SHAPE PROJECT


Wave 1

1. Sine wave

2. The wave lengths get closer together and the pitch increases

3. The tops of the wave lengths get clipped off

4. The wave lengths get flipped upside down

Wave 2

1. Square wave

2. The sound is different because it sounds more hollow and only has the odd harmonics

Wave 3

1. Sawtooth wave

2. The sawtooth wave sounds brighter because it has all harmonics

3. The three waveforms sound different because one is normal, the second has only odd harmonics, and the third has all the harmonics

Wave 4

1. It is jagged and random because it mixes every frequency

2. The graph shows all the decibel levels

3. All the decible levels flecuate then end all at the same time

4. White noise





SOUND & EMOTION


Joy/Happiness

We Like to Party (The Vengabus) - Vengaboys
Tempo is very fast and upbeat, high harmonics with synths, high upbeat vocals, enjoyable constant beat, everything is in a high octave.

Sadness

Hallelujah - Jeff Buckley
Tempo is
very slow, and starts off very quite, quite guitar in the background, smooth soothing vocals, very mellow, singing in the upper harmonics


Anger

Phsycosocial -Slipknot
Hard metal song, screaming vocals, distorted guitar, harsh drumming, a lot of frequencies and clipping, everything in a high decible